Classic Cocktails and Bartending Basics

Are you looking to learn to make classic cocktails and frustrated by promises of Top 10 Cocktails that fail to deliver? Tired of mixologists who boast about easy to make cocktail recipes and in the next breath use obscure ingredients you don’t have at home?

Read on for a simple schematic that shows cocktail families and how the classic cocktails and modern cocktails are related. At the same time you’ll learn some bartending basics, why your ice is more important than glassware, and some tricks for creating your own cocktails from the flavors you love.

a cucumber martini with cucumber garnish.
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Just like I did with baking and baking ratios and making meatballs and meatloaf, I want to share a helpful framework for classic cocktail ratios. It shows how the classic cocktail families build upon each other to give you infinite variations. That way you can figure out what you love in a mixed drink, tailor these formulas to your own taste, find related cocktails to try, and create cocktails you love without recipes.

Consider this a Cocktails 101 in mixed drinks for beginners. If you already know home bartending basics, consider this a review with suggestions how to take your cocktails at home to the next level. And if you are expert bartender, I’d love if you shared your thoughts in a comment!


During 2022, colleagues encouraged me to start a 52 weeks of cocktails challenge. We explored spirits and liqueurs, classic cocktails, and a variety of other themes. It was eye opening to realize that many cocktails start with one of a few basic formulas.

You can read this post from top to bottom or just skip to your favorite cocktail. No matter what, I hope you’re never at a loss for what to order at a bar or to make from your home bar.

Bartending basics


“They say” that the glass you use is critical to the taste of your cocktail or your wine. These are people trying to sell you something.

You don’t need to go out and buy a dozen sets of cocktail glasses. In blind taste tests, expert tasters can’t tell the difference between glasses as long as it isn’t plastic.

So if there is any rule to follow, it’s to make sure your glass can hold your cocktail! And perhaps to have a stemmed glass or two for when you don’t want your hand to warm your drink or your drink to chill your hand!

classic cocktail in a coupe garnished with rosemary.

Shaken vs stirred

The teaching is that cocktails with citrus juices should be shaken to aerate them, and cocktails with only alcohols should be stirred. Shaking results in a larger dilution compared to stirring, and it can make cocktails cloudy.

So James Bond was uncouth to prefer his martini “shaken, not stirred.” Alternatively, it’s a great example of how it doesn’t matter what “they say” if you want to make your cocktails the way you want.

How to shake a cocktail

For the average cocktail drinker and the average cocktail, it doesn’t matter how you shake. If you’re curious, you can read more than you ever wanted to know about shaking your cocktails here.

The dry shake

Despite what I just said, there are cocktails where how you shake does make a difference. Think about the espresso martini or a sour with egg white with their frothy foams. To get that foam, you need to shake longer than normal. But shake with ice and you’ll over-dilute your cocktail and still not get great foam.

A dry shake is when you put your cocktail ingredients in the cocktail shaker without any ice. For best results, shake hard for 20 to 30 seconds. Then add about a half cup of ice cubes, and shake again just to chill.

Just like with the reverse creaming method for cake, you can also do a reverse dry shake. That’s where you first shake your cocktail with ice first, then remove the ice and do a dry shake as the second shake. Do with this information what you will.

About ice

The type of ice can make a difference in your cocktail. Large cubes of ice like the one pictured below have lower surface area to volume and therefore melt more slowly. They’re great for lowball cocktails where the goal is slow sipping.

a cranberry negroni in a lowball glass garnished with and surrounded by fresh cranberries.

In contrast, most highball cocktails call for crushed ice, because crushed ice chills your cocktail the quickest! However, crushed ice will also dilute your cocktail the most.

purple cocktail in highball glass garnished with lemon, surrounded by lavender.

If you don’t have a freezer that dispenses crushed ice, you can crush your own using a clean kitchen bag and meat tenderizer. Or you can buy something called a Lewis bag that is expressly designed for the purpose.

Simple syrup

Simple syrups are an easy way to vary the flavor of your favorite classic cocktail. If you can imagine a flavor, you can probably create a simple syrup.

Making simple syrup is really as simple as combining equal amounts of water with sugar, honey, or other sweetener. Get more information here about making simple syrups and how to use them.

Classic cocktail families

Ok, now that we’ve gone through basic bartending knowledge, here’s a basic bartending drinks cheat sheet for how I organize some of the classic cocktails. I apologize in advance if your favorite cocktail isn’t included!

And, also, some ingredients have a range, because your tastes will differ from other people. If you like your cocktails a certain way, feel free to add more simple syrup or citrus or whatever makes you happy.

table containing ratios of various classic cocktails.

The cocktails

1. The Martini

Many classic cocktail lists start with the old-fashioned, but the martini is top of the list for me. The classic martini is gin and dry vermouth.

Dry Martini Recipe
The dry martini is a classic cocktail. With a ratio of gin to dry vermouth of 5 to 1 or more, the dry martini is crisp and clean and perfect as a pre-dinner drink with appetizers or simple sipping anytime.
Dry Martini
a martini with three blue cheese olives and jigger on a black background.

Start with two ounces of London dry gin. You’ll see that many classic cocktails start with two ounces of a spirit. Stir with one ounce dry vermouth over ice and strain.

Or, if you’re uncertain about whether you like a dry martini (one with relatively more gin) or a wet martini (one with relatively more vermouth), try the taste test below. “Dry” generally starts at 2.5 ounces of gin plus half an ounce of vermouth.

Martini Taste Test: Make 1.5 ounce martinis to figure out your preferred ratio.
1. Go very dry by just rinsing your glass with dry vermouth.
2. Dry (5 to 1): 1.25 ounces gin and 0.25 ounce dry vermouth
3. Classic (2 to 1): 1 ounce gin and 0.5 ounce dry vermouth
4. Equal (1 to 1): 1.25 ounces gin and 1.25 ounces dry vermouth
5. Wet (1 to 2): 0.5 ounce gin and 1 ounce dry vermouth

A kitchen scale can help when you’re doing these small volumes. Or know that a half ounce is one tablespoon, and a quarter ounce is a half tablespoon.

I’ll say it again. The best martini is your favorite martini.

You can switch up the gin, or make it with vodka for a vodka martini. Garnish it with olives, a lemon twist, or a cocktail onion. Or add a splash of olive brine if you want a dirty martini.

a flight of mini martini glasses.

2. The Old-Fashioned

The Old-Fashioned is another simple classic cocktail. It’s made with two ounces of spirit, a sugar cube or up to an ounce of simple syrup, a few dashes of bitters, and garnished with orange peel or a cherry.

The Old-Fashioned is classically made with whiskey, either bourbon or rye, but you can make an Old-Fashioned using nearly any spirit. Or vary your Old-Fashioned with an infused whiskey, a flavored simple syrup, or some mint leaves for a mint julep.

3. The Manhattan

The Manhattan is the closest sibling of the Old-Fashioned, subbing in sweet vermouth as the sweetener. As a result, the classic Manhattan has two ounces of whiskey, an ounce of sweet vermouth, and dashes of bitters.

Like with the Old-Fashioned, you can vary the Manhattan by changing the base spirit or the sweetener. If you make a Manhattan with dry vermouth, you have a dry Manhattan. If you make it with half an ounce each of dry and sweet vermouth, you have a “perfect” Manhattan. Below are two examples of Manhattan variations:

Perfect Brandy Manhattan Recipe
Equal amounts of sweet vermouth and dry vermouth make this brandy manhattan recipe a "perfect" variation of a classic cocktail.
Brandy Manhattan
brandy manhattan on coasters garnished with cherry next to an upturned jigger.
Peanut Butter Manhattan
This dry peanut butter manhattan recipe is made with peanut butter whiskey, dry vermouth, and a dash of bitters. This peanut butter whiskey cocktail is a unique variation of a classic cocktail that's bursting with peanut butter flavor.
Peanut Butter Manhattan
peanut butter manhattan in a coupe garnished with peanut butter cookie next to a bottle of skrewball peanut butter whiskey.

4. The Negroni

Marry the martini and the Manhattan and you have a Negroni. The Negroni is a classic Italian cocktail that is traditionally made with an ounce of dry gin, sweet vermouth, and Campari.

Campari is a bright red amaro, which means “bitter” in Italian. The amari, like Campari, Aperol, Fernet-Branca, and Amaro Montenegro, are Italian liqueurs with bitter, herbal, and variably sweet flavors.

You can vary the Negroni by switching out the gin or the amaro. Here are a few Negroni variations that don’t stray too far from the classic:

Aperol Negroni
This Aperol Negroni takes the classics Negroni recipe and substitutes Aperol for Campari. It's a Negroni variation that's less bitter than the classic, but still refreshing and delicious.
Aperol Negroni
aperol negroni in a rocks glass garnished with orange slice.
Cranberry Negroni
This cranberry Negroni is a delicious variation on a classic. Though it's fantastic any time of year, the deep red color of this gin and cranberry juice cocktail makes it the perfect holiday cocktail.
Cranberry Negroni
a cranberry negroni in a lowball glass garnished with and surrounded by fresh cranberries.

5. The Sour

The sour family of cocktails might be the most important. The sour formula makes easy, classic cocktails that are perfectly balanced between sweet and tart.

The basic formula for the sour is two ounces of spirit, three quarters of an ounce of fresh lemon juice or lime juice or other citrus (plus or minus a quarter ounce), and three quarters of an ounce of simple syrup (plus or minus a quarter ounce). Make it sweeter with more simple syrup or more sour with more citrus juice depending on your preference.

The original sour cocktail did not include egg white, so you can leave it out if you’re concerned about foodborne illness. Or make it with pasteurized egg whites or aquafaba. (If making cocktails leaves you with egg yolks, you can use them in a fruit curd or to brush the crust of a homemade pie.)

Just like with the Old-Fashioned, one way to vary the sour is with a flavored simple syrup. Try this vodka sour with a homemade blackberry syrup.

Vodka Sour with Blackberry Simple Syrup
Adding blackberry simple syrup to a classic vodka sour produces a well-balanced cocktail with bright flavors of lemon and blackberry. The optional egg white creates a smooth mouthfeel that makes the sipping of this blackberry vodka cocktail even easier.
Vodka Sour with Blackberry Simple Syrup
a pink vodka sour cocktail with foam and blackberry garnish with blackberry simple syrup, lemons, and blackberries.

A change to a different base spirit makes other classic cocktails. Make your sour with rum and lime juice, and you have a daiquiri. Make it with gin and lime juice, and it’s a gimlet. Here are some examples of other cocktails in the sour family:

Lavender Gimlet
The lavender gimlet is a lavender cocktail made from botanical gin, lime juice, and lavender simple syrup. Perfect for a summer weekend.
Lavender Gimlet
a purple lavender gimlet in a lowball glass garnished with lime and lavender.
Strawberry Gimlet
This Strawberry Gimlet is the drink you need on warm summer evenings that call for sweet, refreshing cocktails. These are the drinks my kiddo looks at and asks for one of her own. Luckily the strawberry simple syrup can either turned into a strawberry gimlet into a virgin strawberry limeade by substituting soda water for gin.
Strawberry Gimlet
a martini glass with strawbery gimlet and garnished with a strawberry on a chair in a garden
The Lady Bridgerton Empress Gin Cocktail
The Lady Bridgerton is an Empress gIn sour cocktail made with Empress 1908 gin, lemon juice, and a lavender and Earl Grey simple syrup.
Empress Gin Cocktail
An Earl Grey and lavender Empress gin cocktail on a tray with some lavender and a purple napkin.
Aperol Sour
Check out two delicious Aperol sour variations. Make the light and refreshing Aperol sour for a summer day or add gin for a richer, smoother Aperol gin sour.
Aperol Sour
aperol sour with lemon twist on two coasters and jigger on its side.

6. Sour variation with liqueur

Another way to vary the sour formula is to sub in a liqueur for all or part of the simple syrup in the sour. Use tequila and sub an orange liqueur for that simple syrup, and you have a margarita. Use brandy, and you have a sidecar. Here are are some sour variations that use that model:

Spicy Margarita
This spicy margarita recipe is made with jalapeño simple syrup and a chipotle salt rim. It's the perfect cocktail for Taco Tuesday or to accompany any spicy meal. Or serve it with chips and guacamole at your next game night.
Spicy Margarita
a spicy margarita surrounded by colorful chili peppers.
Spicy Skinny Margarita
This spicy skinny margarita is for you if you're looking for all the flavor and balance of a classic margarita but want it all in fewer calories. It's made with a chili-infused spicy tequila, lime juice, and agave nectar. Garnish your cocktail with a dried orange slice, and you won't miss anything but the calories.
Spicy Skinny Margarita
a spicy skinny margarita on a tray with dried orange slices, chili peppers, and limes.
Water Lily
This Water Lily Cocktail variation is a beautiful drink with a floral sweetness that is more subtle than other crème de violette cocktails. While using the same gin, orange liqueur, crème de violette, and lemon juice, the proportions of this Water Lily drink are more consistent with the sour cocktail family for better balance. It's the perfect crème de violette cocktail for those of us who don't love an Aviation.
Check out this recipe
purple cocktail with orange twist in coupe on two stone coasters.
Frangelico Sour: Two Variations
Check out two delicious Frangelico sour variations. Make the simple Frangelico sour for a summer day or add bourbon and egg white for a richer, smoother version.
Frangelico Sour
two frangelico sour cocktails in lowball glasses on a white tray.
Sidecar Cocktail
This sidecar variation is a sweet yet sophisticated classic cocktail that is made with brandy, Cointreau, and lemon juice.
a cocktail with a sugared rim.
Jalapeño raspberry bramble
This jalapeño raspberry Bramble is a spicy twist on yet another classic gin cocktail. It’s made with gin, lime juice, Chambord, and a spicy raspberry simple syrup. Perfect sipping alongside your favorite Mexican meal or other spicy food.
Jalapeno Raspberry Bramble
a jalapeno raspberry bramble garnished with three raspberries surrounded by lime, pepper, and berries.
Porn Star Martini
This Porn Star Martini is a passion fruit sour made with vodka, passion fruit puree and passion fruit liqueur, lime juice, simple syrup and vanilla. It's a delicious sipper with tropical flavor and aroma.
Pornstar Martini
a porn star martini garnished with half a passion fruit on a tray with sparkling wine and passion fruit half.
Cherry Bakewell Cocktail
This cherry bakewell cocktail is a dessert cocktail inspired by the ingredients in a cherry Bakewell tart.
Cherry Bakewell Cocktail
a cherry bakewell cocktail with a sugared rim and maraschino cherry, scattered almonds, and a bowl of cherries.

7. Sour variation: the highball

You can also take the sour formula, add tonic water or soda water, and serve it over crushed ice for a refreshing summer highball.

Blue Mojito
The Blue Mojito is a stunning twist on a classic cocktail. Blue curaçao gives this cocktail a striking blue color that will have you dreaming of crystal-clear waters and sandy beaches.
Blue Mojito
a bright blue mojito cocktail in a highball glass garnished with mint and lime.
Blueberry Gin and Tonic
This blueberry gin and tonic is a highball cocktail made with gin, blueberry simple syrup, lime juice, and tonic water. It's the perfect summer drink.
Blueberry Gin and Tonic
two deep pink blueberry gin and tonics surrounded by fresh blueberries.
Elderflower Collins
This Elderflower Collins is an adaptation of the Tom Collins. The Elderflower Collins leaves out the simple syrup and instead combines gin with elderflower liqueur. This elderflower gin cocktail is essentially an alcoholic lemonade, perfect for hot summer evenings or any time you want a refreshing drink.
Elderflower Collins
a highball glass filled with elderflower liqueur and empress gin with a straw, orange, and cherry.

8. Sour variation with sparkling wine

Or cut the sour formula in half and top with sparkling wine instead of soda water. Doing this, you can make a French 75 using gin, lemon juice, and simple syrup. Or make your Cosmo sparkle with vodka, orange liqueur, cranberry juice, lime, and sparkling wine.

Rose Syrup French 75
This rose syrup French 75 is a well-balanced gin cocktail that's festive and floral but not too sweet.
Rose Syrup French 75
rose syrup french 75 cocktail garnished with lemon twist in a flute.

9. Espresso Martini

The original espresso martini is a modern cocktail made with vodka, espresso, and coffee liqueur and reads as a variation of a Black Russian. The non-martini Espresso martini had a revival in 2022, gaining popularity with all of its many variations, two of which you can see below.

The Best Creamy Espresso Martini with Baileys
This Creamy Espresso Martini with Baileys is richer and a bit sweeter than the classic. Enjoy it as an after dinner or afternoon cocktail.
Espresso Martini with Baileys
a creamy espresso martini with Baileys on a tray of coffee beans.
Gin Espresso Martini
This gin espresso martini combines gin, espresso, and coffee liqueur to give you a cocktail that's also a pick-me-up. It's a variation on the original espresso martini with gin instead of vodka.
Gin Espresso Martini
gin espresso martini on a tray surrounded by scattered coffee beans.

10. Spritzes and simple mixed drinks

Finally, if you just want a simple mixed drink (or maybe don’t trust your bartender!), you can never go wrong with a spritz made with 2 ounces of liquor, 3 ounces of sparkling wine, and an ounce of carbonated water.

Or ask for a simple spiked drink using 1 part spirit to 2 parts juice or soda or lemonade, etc. The classic example is the screwdriver, made with orange juice and vodka. Just thinking about combining rum and Diet Coke brings back memories.

Passion Spritz
The Passion Spritz is a passion fruit spritz using the classic spritz ratio of 3 ounces of Prosecco, 2 ounces of passion fruit liqueur, and 1 ounce of seltzer or club soda. Garnish your passion fruit spritz with mint leaves and lime, and you have a lighter version of a passion fruit martini that is the perfect hot weather cocktail meant for sipping on the patio with friends.
Passion Fruit Spritz
passion spritz garnished with lime and mint on coasters with bottle of passion fruit liqueur and sprigs of mint.
Negroni Spritz
The Negroni spritz is a Negroni variation made with dry gin, Campari, sweet vermouth, Prosecco and soda water.
Negroni Spritz
wine glass filled with a negroni spritz, ice cubes, and orange slice next to jigger and cut orange.
Aperol Soda
The Aperol Soda is a simple highball cocktail made with Aperol and soda water. It's essentially an Aperol spritz without prosecco and the perfect chilly sipper for hot, hot days.
Aperol Soda
orange highball cocktail with orange slices, ice cubes, and orange striped straw.


Store open bottles of liquor and liqueurs in a cool, dark place. Spirits like gin and vodka won’t go bad. You can use your freezer to store bottles that are destined for icy-cold cocktails, like the vodka for your vodka martini. It’s just not critical.

Liqueurs are a bit different because of the added sugar. Open bottles of liqueur should also be kept in a cool, dark place. There’s a general recommendation to consume all liqueurs within 6 to 12 months of opening, but liqueurs that aren’t cream-based liqueurs won’t go bad. However, the flavors of different liqueurs may lose potency over time, just like those dried herbs that have been sitting in your kitchen for years.

Most fortified wines like vermouth should be stored in the refrigerator. The higher sugar content slows the oxidation of the wine, but it doesn’t completely prevent it. So they say that you should drink all of these bottles within a month or so of opening.

Bitters and extracts like vanilla can be stored at room temperature almost indefinitely, again in a cool, dry place. You might see some of the alcohol evaporate over time, so keep the lids tightly closed.

Cocktail FAQs

What cocktail equipment do I need?

The answer depends on what you like to drink. The hardest bit of cocktail equipment to replace with another kitchen tool would be your cocktail shaker. Next, you might add a jigger to measure, bar spoon, strainer, muddler, citrus peeler, and cocktail picks. Don’t forget the glasses, bottle opener, and corkscrew.

How many servings of alcohol are in a cocktail?

Whether it’s beer or wine or liquor, a serving of alcohol has 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. That’s the amount found in 1.5 ounces of an 80 proof liquor, so many of the cocktails above should be considered two servings.

How much alcohol is safe to drink?

Here’s what the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says about alcohol. Everyone is different, but the U.S. recommendation for the average person is no more than two drinks if you are a man or one drink if you are a woman. However, the World Health Organization recently said that no amount of alcohol is truly safe. Please drink responsibly.

Learn more

If this leaves you eager for more, you can always take a bartending course or get a bartending certification if you want to expand out of home bartending.

Join in the 52 weeks of cocktails challenge on Instagram or Facebook.

Bartending books

There are a lot of cocktail books out there. My current favorite is the Cocktail Codex, and The Craft of the Cocktail by Dale DeGroff is a classic. For modern variations, check out the books by J.M. Hirsch.

If you find this schema for understanding classic cocktails helpful, I would love if you would leave a comment and rating on this post. Pretty please!

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  1. This article is a revelation! Thank you for sorting this out in such an elegant way! I’m one of those with a full ingredients cabinet who never knows what to make. You helped me realize I have the ingredients for soooo many things! Will reference this again and again.

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